scholarly articles: qualitative and quantitative analysis

img574         REVISITING THE NOBILITY OF SPIRIT AND HOPE IN THE DIARY OF A YOUNG GIRL: ANNE FRANK Total No. of Pages :149 Text No. of Pages : 6 Author : agnes tadia Type of Document : Thesis Key Words: nobility, spirit, hope, diary Abstract Summary This study attempted to analyze the diary of Anne Frank and the values gleamed from it. It emphasized the nobility of spirit and hope amidst the war. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions: 1.What are the chronicles of events in the life of Anne Frank reflective of the following: 1.1. family relations 1.2. dispositions in life 1.3. personal experiences 1.4. decisions 1.5. sources of happiness and sorrow 1.6. impressions about war 2.What vivid impressions of Anne Frank’s experiences are recorded in her diary? 3.What conditions of the times that led her to write the diary? 4.How may the accounts from the diary inspire courage and optimism? Findings From the content analysis of the diary, the following findings emerged: 1. Chronicles of events in the life of Anne Frank reflective of the following: 1.1 Family Relations. Anne Frank was closest to her father than anyone else in the family and imitated some of his desirable traits. On the other hand, she was increasingly aware of her distant relationship with her mother and believed that her mother loved Margot more than her. She felt that her mother exhibited negative traits like being overly- critical, argumentative and remote. She and Margot have grown closer and both became attached to each other. Overall, in spite of conflicts in the family, they are tremendously close knit and had strong family relations. 1.2 Dispositions In Life. She hid against the Nazis with less fear and anxiety and showed courage when she was detained in concentration camp by being calm and serene. She diverted her state of mind and feeling into worthwhile, meaningful and prolific tasks instead of wallowing into despair and misery. Throughout hiding, she maintained cheerful disposition in life among the occupants in the Secret Annexe. 1.3 Personal Experiences. Her personal experiences shaped her personality and character both inwardly and outwardly. She felt springs of joy and excitement as well as bouts of temper and annoyance while hiding. She heard many terrible news about the barbarity of the Nazis towards Jews and secretly watched some Jews who were harassed and tortured in her hiding place. At some point, she felt guilty because she was safe in Secret Annexe at the same time depressed because at any moment they would be discovered by the Gestapo and be killed. 1.4 Decisions. She decided to keep a diary to be published after the war to pursue her dream of becoming an author. She also decided to stay hopeful despite the restlessness and depressing atmosphere she was into. Her decisions in improving herself into better by becoming less talkative, capricious, annoying, sensitive and childish and being less intimate with Peter are gleamed in her diary. The decisions she made reflected that she has incomparable introspection and amazing self-awareness. 1.5 Sources of Happiness and Sorrow. She found an audience for her buried thoughts and feelings in her diary and her dream to be a writer or journalist made her happy for the time- being. Romance knocked the heart of Anne when Peter Van Daan came into her life bringing unparalleled happiness. Hiding in an unsanitary, quiet and inconvenient place with eight different people for almost 25 months with constant upheaval and danger and being left behind in her studies pained her so much. Another source of her sorrow is the passage of her growing up years wherein physical, emotional and psychological changes took a big toll on her. 1.6 Impressions About War. She strove to be happy by thinking positive thoughts and envisioning her future despite the threat of war. She anticipated the liberations of the Jews and believed that they would have dignity again as people. She never doubted that she would survive after the war and was excited over what she would do to achieve her goals. She believed that despite of death and chaos, peace would reign again because of man’s innate goodness of heart. 2. Recorded Vivid Expressions of Anne Frank’s Experiences The family relations, growing up problems, romance, conviction on war and politics, daily routine of the occupants in the Secret Annexe, conflicts with family members as well as her hope for liberation and ambitions in life are the vivid impressions recorded in her diary. Thus, they helped her navigate her inner self and formed her personality and point of view in life. 3. Conditions of Times That Led Her Write The Diary Holocaust is considered as the greatest tragedy of the 20th century wherein the Frank family was forced to hide from the Germans. The European Jews were segregated from the Germans, banned from different places, forced to work endlessly and all those revealing torture and harassment were done against them. The Second World War is on the rise while she lived and Anti-Semitism Nazism led her to record what is happening within and around her. Hence, the social, cultural and political factors reflected the theme or message of an author’s work and its mood and tone have relevance to what the society goes through that time. 4. Accounts From The Diary That May Inspire Courage and Optimism The accounts from the diary of Anne Frank leave behind a message addressed to the young people that may inspire them to face life with greater courage and optimism. It professes that she may be a good role model or inspiration because she exhibited maturity beyond her age and showed nobility of spirit and hope despite of unfavorable circumstances confronting her. Conclusions: Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1.The most significant events in the life of Anne Frank are brought by the strong family relations which cultivated her sound and positive disposition in life. 2.The intense longing for independence and anticipation of becoming a woman-writer-journalist are the predominant vivid impressions recorded in her diary. 3.The barbaric and turbulent conditions born by the Nazi invasion which made the family suffer socio-economic-political depression led her to write the diary. 4.Her belief in the ultimate goodness of humanity and her faith in religion and God amidst the war are the accounts from her diary that inspire courage and optimism. Recommendations: The analysis and interpretation of the diary yielded the following recommendations: 1.That the study may be used as reference materials in History, Sociology and Literature with traces of the events in Second World War. 2.The literature and history teachers may assign researches on personal experiences of Anne Frank especially her suffering as a Jew in order to deeply understand the inhumanity of man to man during Anti-Semitism Nazism period and appreciate the dignity of human life. 3.The English teachers may make journal or diary writing an activity to enable students enhance their writing ability and know themselves better as well as express their inner thoughts, feelings and emotions. 4.The curriculum developers especially in secondary and tertiary level may include The Diary of A Young Girl by Anne Frank in their syllabi lessons because her life story embodies nobility of spirit and hope which may inspire young people to a lesser or higher degree. 5.The future researchers may indulge in the study of a non-fiction for few have really ventured on it as a formal study.   these are examples of excerpts from her diary…. The Diary of a Young Girl Anne Frank Dear Kitty, I see the eight of us with our ‘Secret Annex’ as if we were a little piece of blue heaven, surrounded by heavy black rain clouds. The round, clearly defined spot where we stand is still safe, but the clouds gather more closely about us and the circle which separates us from the approaching danger closes more and more tightly. Now we are so surrounded by danger and darkness that we bump against each other, as we search desperately for a means of escape. We all look down below, where people are fighting each other, we look above, where it is quiet and beautiful and meanwhile we are cut off by the great dark mass, which will not let us go upwards, but which stands before us as an impenetrable wall; it tries to crush us, but cannot do so yet. I can only cry and implore: “Oh, if only the black circle could recede and open the way for us!” –Monday, 8 November, 1943.           Dear Kitty, The best remedy for those who are afraid, lonely or unhappy is to go outside, somewhere where they can be quiet, alone with the heavens, nature and God. Because only then does one feel that all is as it should be and that God wishes to see people happy, amidst the simple beauty of nature.   When I looked outside right into the depth of Nature and God, then I was happy, really happy. And Peter, so long as I have that happiness here, the joy in nature, health and a lot more besides, all the while one has that, one can always recapture happiness. Riches can all be lost, but that happiness in your own heart can only be veiled, and it will still bring you happiness again, as long as you live. As long as you can look fearlessly up into the heavens, as long as you know that you are pure within and that you will still find happiness.” -Wednesday, 23 February, 1944.            Dear Kitty, I’ve found that there is always some beauty left- in nature, sunshine, freedom, in yourself; these can all help you. Look at these things, then you find yourself again, and God, and then you regain your balance. And whoever is happy will make others happy too. He who has courage and faith will never perish in misery!” –Tuesday, 7 March, 1944. Dear Kitty, I finally realized that I must do my schoolwork to keep from being ignorant, to get on in life, to become a journalist, because that’s what I want! I know I can write …, but it remains to be seen whether I really have talent … And if I don’t have the talent to write books or newspaper articles, I can always write for myself. But I want to achieve more than that. I can’t imagine living like Mother, Mrs. van Daan and all the women who go about their work and are then forgotten. I need to have something besides a husband and children to devote myself to! … I want to be useful or bring enjoyment to all people, even those I’ve never met. I want to go on living even after my death! And that’s why I’m so grateful to God for having given me this gift, which I can use to develop myself and to express all that’s inside me! When I write I can shake off all my cares. My sorrow disappears, my spirits are revived! But, and that’s a big question, will I ever be able to write something great, will I ever become a journalist or a writer? –Wednesday, 5 April 1944.            The Perceptual Strengths of Selected Sophomore Students in Learning English Lessons at the Different Department at Batangas State University- SY- 2011-2012   Abstract:   Never before had traditional teachers and sages implemented student-centered activities because they are the focal point in lecture and discussion. Never before the pioneers in education discovered the multiple intelligence theory and learning style which debunked the intelligent quotient theory because it recognizes various talents and skills of every person. Nor had they entered so completely into the very essence of learning style seeing every learner to absorb and learn information to full potential. Never before had they utilized computers with diskettes, compact disks and flash drives, radio, television, digital video discs and video compact discs player, liquid crystal display, overhead projector and other electronic gadgets in classroom but chalk and board. Just when it seemed that the methods and materials used by our forefathers of education are unerring, commendable and effective, the educators who theorized multiple intelligence and learning styles had done much task with an undeniable depth and capability to recreate the educational trend today. This study attempts to determine the Perceptual Strengths of Selected Sophomore Students in Learning English Lessons at CABEIHM, CAS, CEAFACS, CIT, CON and CTE Department at Batangas State University And Proposed Instructional Materials And Classroom Activities For English Teachers That Correspond To Students’ Perceptual Strengths, School Year 2011-2012. Students possess different perceptual strengths and this study can accommodate when learning new and challenging information. The perceptual strengths will be important parameters in designing proposedinstructional materials and classroom activities for English teachers. The instructional materials used and teaching techniques and methods implemented in English subjects can be improved and transformed into better through the result of this study. Moreover, she strives to achieve new ways of thinking, feeling, doing, becoming and being as her goal to contribute to quality education. With this visionary, engaging and transformative information on education, let us bring out the best in our students by adapting new teaching styles. We, as teachers, should help, support, advocate and start our goal to achieve quality education through teaching our students the way they learn.             Objectives of the Study This study, indeed, calls forth facts, analysis and most of all, application. It is a risk to conduct such study because determining perceptual strength is extensive and difficult and it needs reliable and valid instrument. It asks for deeper and holistic understanding and wisdom of the educative process. Students possess different perceptual strengths and this study can accommodate when learning new and challenging information. How will learning come alive and effective in this dynamic and changing world in education when most of the teachers just know what to teach but do not know how to teach within the students’ grasp and absorption? How can teachers achieve maximum learning when they don’t know teaching styles that correspond to the students’ perceptual strengths? The perceptual strengths will be important parameters in designing proposedinstructional materials and classroom activities for English teachers. The instructional materials used and teaching techniques and methods implemented in English subjects can be improved and transformed into better through the result of this study. Methodology Respondents of the Study             The survey questionnaire method was used to gather data. The respondents of the study consisted of selected 270 sophomore students from different colleges at CABEIHM, CAS, CEAFACS, CIT, CON and CTE Department at Batangas State University. They were distributed as follows: Business Management = 30, Hotel and Restaurant Management= 30, Developmental Communication=30, Psychology=30, Architecture=30, Information Technology=30, Instrumentation and Control Technology=30, Nursing=30 and Secondary Education=30.   Statistical Treatment of Data The instrument used in gathering data was the questionnaire distributed among the respondents. The statistical treatments used in this study were percentages, weighted mean and t-test method.

  1. This was used with to analyze and interpret the profile of the respondents.

Weighted Mean. This was use to determine which part of the total respondents fell under certain categories. T-Test. this was used to test the significant difference between the assessments of male and female respondents from different department and to determine the significant difference on the perceptual strength in learning English when students are grouped according to their profile. Both computed values were computed with the tabular value at 0.05 level of significance.   Results and Discussion

  1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents:

1.1. Gender Table 1 Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to their Gender

Gender Frequency Percentage
Male Female 121 149 44.8 55.2
Total 270 100

            1.2. Age Table 2 Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to their Age

Age bracket Frequency Percentage
16 17 18 19 2 184 70 14 .7 68.1 25.9 5.2
Total 270 100

1.3. Course Table 3 Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to their Course

Course Frequency Percentage
Business Management Hotel and Restaurant Management Developmental Communication Psychology Architecture Information Technology Instrumentation and Control Technology Nursing Secondary Education 30 30   30   30 30 30 30   30 30 11.1 11.1   11.1   11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1   11.1 11.1
Total 270 100


  1. Perceptual Strengths (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic) the students prefer in learning English lessons?

Table 4 Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to their Perceptual Strength  

  Visual Auditory Tactile Kinesthetic
    Business Management     9   7   9   5
  3.33   2.60   3.33   1.85
    Hotel and Restaurant Management     3   9   8   10
  1.11   3.33   2.97   3.70
      Development Communication       4   7   5   14
  1.48   2.60   1.85   5.19
      Psychology   5   13   7   5
  1.85   4.81   2.60   1.85
      Architecture   13   3   10   4
  4.81   1.11   3.70   1.48
      Information Technology         4   7   9   10
  1.48   2.60   3.33   3.70
    Instrumentation and Control Technology     5   6   13   6
  1.85   2.22   4.81   2.22
      Nursing     8   6   12   4
  2.97   2.22   4.44   1.48
      Secondary Education     6   12   6   6
  2.22   4.44   2.22   2.22
    Total   57   70   79   64
  21.1   25.9   23.7   29.3


  1. Perceptual Strengths (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic) the male and female students prefer in learning the English lessons?

Frequency Distribution of the Male and Female Respondents According to their Perceptual Strength   Table 5  

Perceptual Strengths Male Female
Visual 57
Auditory 70
Tactile 79
Kinesthetic 64  
Total 121 149
44.8% 55.2%


  1. Difference on the perceptual strengths in learning English with respect to the student’s profile variable.

Table 6 Significant Difference on the Perceptual Strength in Learning English When Students are Grouped According to their Profile

Profile p-value Computed Value Decision Verbal Interpretation
Age Gender Course .66 .83 .000 31.98 7.36 277.74 Accept Ho Accept Ho Reject Ho Not Significant Not Significant Significant

The table above shows the difference on the perceptual strength in learning English when students are grouped according to their profile.                                                      From the descriptive-normative-comparative-correlational survey research design of the study, the following findings emerged:  

  1. Profile of Students

        Gender. The male respondents comprised 44.8 percentage while the female respondents comprised 55.2 percentage.         Age. The profile of the sophomore students indicates that they fell within the age range of 16-19 and the age range of 17 comprised 68.1 percentage of frequency distribution.         Course. There are 30 respondents for nine courses which comprised 11.1 percentage for each course.

  1. Perceptual Strengths of Students in Different Department in Learning English Lessons. The computed chi-square value of 277.74 was found to be significant at 0.05 level of significance. This indicates significant difference on the students’ perceptual strength when grouped according to their course.

Based on the study, 4.81 implies that students major in Architecture and the 3.33 implies that students major in Business Management are visual learners. Thus, these are the students create mental images, remember, absorb and retain information through visual thinking. As revealed in the study, students major in Psychology with 4.81 and students major in Secondary Education with 4.44 are auditory learners who learn best when they hear the information, read about it and discuss it. As indicated in the study, students major in Instrumentation and Control Technology with 4.81, students major in Nursing with 4.44 and students major in Architecture with 3.70 as well as students major in Business Management with 3.33 are tactile learners. Nevertheless, they acquire and understand knowledge fully through hands-on approach. The 5.19 indicates that students major in Hotel and Restaurant Management and students major in Development Communication and students major in Information Technology with 3.70 are kinesthetic learners. They are the type of learners who engage well in physical involvement and prefer doing things rather than just by sitting and listening. 3. Perceptual Strengths of Male and Female Students in Learning English Lessons. Specifically, it was noted that the males are visual learners with 21.1 percentage and kinesthetic learners with 23.7. Hence, they learn best through creating a picture in their minds and through physical involvement. In contrast, the females are auditory learners with 25.9 percentage and tactile learners with 29.2. Hence, they learn best through listening to discussions and using of both hands.

  1. Difference on the Perceptual Strengths in Learning English With Respect to the Student’s Profile Variable. The students’ perceptual strengths do not vary when grouped according to their age and gender at 0.05 level of significance. However, there is a significant difference on the students’ perceptual strength when grouped according to their course.

  CONCLUSIONS Through comprehensive analysis and presentation of data, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. No two students learn exactly the same way. Moreso, the typical college sophomore student of BSU is a combination of different perceptual strengths such as visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic.
  2. Students learn in different way and teachers have different teaching styles and methods. In as much, there is a significant relationship between the students’ learning styles and teachers’ teaching styles for both of them affect each other.
  3. The process in learning English lessons is accelerated when there is a match between the perceptual strengths of the students and the teaching modality of the teachers.
  4. The instructional materials and classroom activities for English teachers that correspond to students’ perceptual strengths may be of great help to achieve maximum teaching-learning potential between two variables.

  RECOMMENDATIONS The analysis and interpretation of the study yielded the following recommendations:

  1. The English teachers as well as the administrators of BSU should be informed and oriented about the perceptual strengths of students so that they can adapt teaching methods that would make every lesson in English easy to learn, interesting and effective.
  2. There should be seminars and workshops about perceptual strengths and teaching styles so that teachers will be flexible, responsive, creative, innovative, engaging and transitional to efficiently implement newly-revised classroom activities and instructional materials according to students’ perceptual strengths.
  3. More studies about the same subject should be made. Hence, a similar subject done in another setting should be conducted in different campuses or could be done in a wider-scale including the integrated school- which includes the elementary and secondary department.


  Proposed  Instructional Materials and Classroom Activities for English Teachers Based on the Results of  Perceptual Strengths of Selected Sophomore Students  in Learning English Lessons  
Types of Learners Instructional Materials Classroom Activities
    Visual Modules, books, magazines, newspapers, graphic aids such as pie charts, bar and line graph, maps, pictures, television, overhead projector, liquid crystal display, computer, VCD, DVD Drawing of editorial cartoon, poster, slogan, collage making, scrabble, word games, comic strips, filmstrips, electro boards, task cards, and flip chutes, photo-essay, power point presentation and windows movie maker, film/documentary showing
    Auditory Radio, mp3, mp4, ipod, recorded tapes, discs, computer, television, VCD, DVD Spelling contests, oral reports, listening to phonics and recordings on pronunciation and enunciation, listening to music, story telling, oration and declamation
    Tactile Modules, books, magazines, newspapers, coloring and writing materials, books, musical instruments, logic puzzles, scrabble, puppets Drawing of editorial cartoon, poster slogan, collage making, scrabble, word games, comic strips, diorama, scale model, photo-essay, clay molding, word games, mazes, writing a poem/essay and written report, black theater, chamber theater and marionette theater
        Kinesthetic Coloring and writing materials, modules, books, camera, microphone, DVD Floor games, role-playing activities,  Role play, dramatization, speech choir, completion dialog, panel discussion, brainstorming, group discussion, debate, personification of characters, interpretative dancing, educational trip, black theater, chamber  theater and marionette theater


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